Uri and Rachel Avnery / Gush Shalom

(2001, Israel)

...for their unwavering conviction, in the midst of violence, that peace can only be achieved through justice and reconciliation.


Peace activists Uri and Rachel Avnery are two of the main founders of Gush Shalom, a peace movement that saw the light in Israel in 1993. The movement has been campaigning against the further extension of Israeli Settlements in the Occupied Territories and also against the continuing demolition of Arab houses. Among others, it advocates for the Israeli withdrawal from all the Occupied Territories, the recognition of the PLO as the Palestinians' representative and their right to establish their own independent state.

Contact Details

Uri Avnery
Gush Shalom
PO Box 3322
Tel Aviv 61033



Gush Shalom was founded in 1993, as a new peace movement, which came into existence because the other Israeli peace movements had decided not to criticise the new Labour government. Gush Shalom is founded on three principles:

  • Israeli withdrawal from all the occupied territories;
  • recognition of the PLO as the Palestinians' representative;
  • recognition of the right of the Palestinians to establish their own independent state, with East Jerusalem as its capital, alongside Israel.

Gush Shalom is a wholly voluntary organisation with no hierarchy. All its members simply refer to themselves as 'activists'. Since its founding in 1993, Gush Shalom has organised hundreds of demonstrations, protests and actions in line with its three objectives. The actions included rebuilding the demolished houses of Palestinians, demonstrating against the expropriation of Palestinian land for the establishment or enlargement of Jewish settlements, and generally giving support to the Oslo peace process and moving towards the establishment of a Palestinian state.

Other initiatives have included:

  • Boycott of the products of Jewish settlements on Palestinian land;
  • Symbolic marking with green paint of all the points where roads cross the 'Green Line' between Israel and the occupied territories to signify to travellers that 'At this point you are leaving your country and entering the country of your neighbours';
  • Placing peace advertisements in the newspaper Ha'aretz. On one occasion, a published statement signed by 500 prominent Israelis, supported the establishment of the State of Palestine in "All the territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip", with Jerusalem as the joint capital of the two states, Israel and Palestine.

Most importantly, Gush Shalom has been campaigning, along with other Israeli peace organisations, against the further extension of Israeli Settlements in the Occupied Territories and, in particular, against the continuing demolition of Arab houses that are intended to make that extension possible.

Since the end of the 'peace process' and the upsurge in violence in Israel and the occupied territories, Gush Shalom has persevered in its pursuit of what it perceives as the only road to peace. Gush Shalom activists are regularly arrested and abused, although as Israelis their treatment is far better than that of Palestinians, and their presence in situations of conflict undoubtedly does much to prevent the mistreatment of Palestinians.

Gush Shalom demands to end the blockade on the Gaza Strip and has sent several convoys for humanitarian relief to the beleaguered Strip. Gush Shalom has requested the Israeli government, as well as the governments of Europe and America, to start a dialogue with Hamas. Gush Shalom has vigorously opposed both the 2006 Lebanon War and the 2009 Gaza War from the first moment, organising demonstrations against the wars and protesting against the war crimes committed in their course.

Two of the main founders of Gush Shalom are Uri and Rachel Avnery.

Rachel Avnery was born in 1932 and worked first a schoolteacher and then as a photographer. Since 1993, she worked as the full-time unpaid administrator and organiser of Gush Shalom. Rachel Avnery died in May 2011.

Uri Avnery was born in 1923 in Germany, but moved in 1933 with his family to Palestine. He sustained severe wounds fighting in the Israeli-Palestinian War in 1948. Since then he has dedicated his life to campaigning for peace between Israelis and Palestinians: as an author and magazine editor, as a Member of the Israeli Parliament, the Knesset, and as an indefatigable peace activist.


Acceptance Speech by Uri Avnery

December 7th, 2001

Madam Speaker, Honourable Members of Parliament, Ladies and Gentlemen,

On this day, the seventh of December, exactly fifty-three years ago, I was hit in the belly by a burst of machine-gun bullets. After many months of bitter fighting, I knew that I had little chance of surviving. 

It was broad daylight and I was lying in full view of the enemy machine-gun. But four of my soldiers, new immigrants from Morocco, ran up to me and under fierce fire carried me to safety. After a long and bumpy journey on a jeep, without morphine, I reached the army hospital, just in time for the doctors to operate on me and save my life.

I lay there for many days, unable to sleep or eat, connected to pipes and instruments, surrounded by soldiers in agony, some dying, some losing limbs, and thinking, thinking, thinking. 

-  Thinking about my comrades, who had lost their lives or become invalids.
-  Thinking about the unseen inhabitants of the villages that my company had conquered. After all, we had often entered houses where the oven was still hot and the uneaten meal was still on the table, left behind by the families who had escaped only a few minutes before and become refugees.
-  Thinking about the tragedy of the war between these two peoples, we, the new Israelis, they, the Palestinians.

I was 25 years old and had to decide what to do with the rest of my life, a life - I felt - that had been given to me as a gift by those four young men who risked theirs to save mine.

Lying in bed, sleepless and forever thirsty, I decided that my life must have a purpose, and that the only purpose worth living for was to bring an end to this tragic war, to make peace between our peoples, the Israelis and the Palestinians. My goal became making peace, saving lives and being part of the march of humanity towards a civilized world order without war and hunger and oppression.

Since then, for 53 years, I have tried hard to live up to that commitment. I created a magazine, and as its editor, for 40 years, I battled against the demagogues preaching national and religious hatred. As a member of the Knesset for ten years. I strove for a democratic, liberal, secular, multi-ethnic, civil society in Israel, based on equality and social justice, living in close partnership with a free, sovereign State of Palestine. 

I was never alone in this fight. Throughout it, I was lucky to be in the company of courageous men and women, who had embraced the cause of peace and justice. In the beginning we were few, a mere handful, but in the course of the struggle our numbers grew.

To many it seems that our cause is a labor of Sisyphus. And indeed, the disappointments on the way have been many and heart-breaking. But the victories gained are far more important. 

When we set out, more than 50 years ago, there was hardly an Israeli who was ready to admit that a Palestinian people even exists, let alone that it had any rights. Only 30 years ago, Golda Meir, then Prime Minister of Israel, declared that "there is no such thing as a Palestinian people". Today, there is hardly an Israeli who denies the existence of the Palestinian people. 

When we said, 40 years ago, that there must be a State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, it sounded mad. Today, the vast majority of Israelis believe that there will be no peace without it. 

When we said, 30 years ago, that we must negotiate with the Palestinian Liberation Organization, it sounded like treason. Indeed, when I first met Yasser Arafat during the battle of Beirut, several Israeli cabinet ministers demanded that I be put on trial for high treason. Today, Israeli cabinet ministers stand in line at Yasser Arafat's door.

When, six years ago, we coined the slogan "Jerusalem - Capital of Two States", we were accused of breaking the national consensus. But last year, when the Israeli delegation at Camp David suggested turning over several Arab neighborhoods in East Jerusalem to the future Palestinian state, hardly any protest was heard in Israel.

The road in front of us is hard and dangerous. Let us not underestimate the force of hatred, fear and prejudice, bred by 120 years of conflict. But when we look back at the long road we have traveled, we can say with confidence that the end is already in sight. Dark as the night may be, we know that the dawn of a new day will come.         

Nine years ago Rachel and I took part in a protest against the  decision of the Rabin government to expel 415 Islamic activists from the country. We put up a tent in Jerusalem, opposite the Prime Minister's office, and lived there, Jews and Arabs, for 45 days and nights. It was an almost Scandinavian winter. For several days Jerusalem was covered with snow and we either shivered in the freezing cold or were choked by the open Beduin fire, and we talked about the failure of the old peace movement, which was unwilling to protest against a Labor party government. 

There and then we decided to set up a new peace movement - independent, militant, uncorrupted by a craving for popularity, determined to stick to the truth even when faced with hatred. Thus Gush Shalom, the Peace Bloc, was born.

Rachel and I accept this prize first of all as a salute to the hundreds of activists of Gush Shalom: the women and men, old and young, who give their all - time, energy, money and, most important of all, their faith - to the cause of peace and justice; who go out in pouring rain and the scorching sun to demonstrate against injustice and oppression, braving the hatred and threats and violence of self-appointed patriots. They have remained true to their convictions even when despair and resignation seemed to gain the upper hand, when all around them other peace groups collapsed and gave up.

To all of these, and to all other peace activists in Israel, I send from here, this beautiful city, a message of good cheer and hope: Let us keep our heads up high, for our cause will prevail. Whatever the odds, however difficult the road, even when the forces of evil and ignorance seem to be winning - the future belongs to us, the forces of peace and conciliation, the true patriots of Israel and Palestine, two peoples, two states, but with one common future. 

This prize is a tremendous encouragement to all of us. We accept it with gratitude and humility. It reminds us that ours is but a small part in a world-wide struggle for peace, justice and equality between human beings and between nations, for the preservation of our planet. It can all be summed up in one word, which both in Hebrew and in Arabic means not only peace, but also wholeness, security and wellbeing:

Shalom, Salaam.


Turning points in Uri Avnery's life

Produced for Uri Avnery's 90th birthday (October 2013). 

Portrait of and interview with Uri Avnery

Memorial service Rachel Avnery


Molten Lead. January 2009. Download (pdf)

A Memo to Obama on Israel. December 2008. The Nation, USA.

Good Morning, Hamas. March 2008. Download (pdf)

1967: A personal testimony. June 2007. Download (pdf)



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